David J. Allard, CHP, Committee Chair
As many of you may have heard at the recent virtual Health Physics Society (HPS) Business Meeting, President Goldin has asked me to chair the HPS History Committee. Past Chair Jim Willison and others have done a great job in organizing hundreds of photos from past meetings, and Jim has graciously agreed to continue this work with the committee. I have had numerous calls with committee members and HPS leadership over the past few weeks, and I plan to have regular group calls to plan short-term and long-term objectives and work. For example, there are still many photos to be organized and posted, as well as dozens of videos and interviews with senior members to be edited and posted. We would also like to create a "one stop shop" online location with links to historical information.
You have no doubt heard it said many times how important it is to study history, as it is crucial to understanding our past, to inform the present, and prevent us from making the same mistakes in the future. Case in point is the recent tragic ammonium nitrate explosion in Beirut. In April of 1947, a ship in Galveston Bay with similar quantities of ammonium nitrate ignited and caused one of the largest nonnuclear explosions in US history. The scale of death and destruction of both events are of the same order of magnitude. One would hope we've finally learned how to properly transport and store such material.
The field of radiation protection has a rich and varied history. From the discovery of x rays 125 years ago, physics grew from macroscopic-level studies of heat, light, and sound in the late 1800s to a new focus at the microscopic level of the atom and nucleus, with new discoveries ushering in our modern era of physics. From the quick progression of the discoveries of x rays, radioactivity, and radium came applications in medicine, industry, academic research, and some quack medical use. As the early users of sources of ionizing radiation learned (often tragically), standards for protecting workers and the public were needed. Early efforts by international and national committees on x ray and radium protection began to produce safety standards. And from the outgrowth of the Manhattan Project with the first controlled fission in the CP-1 pile in late 1942 to the testing and use of three nuclear weapons just 75 years ago, further work in radiation protection developed. A group of radiation protection professionals met in Ohio in 1955 and agreed to form the Health Physics Society. I found it fascinating to read Ed Tupin's recent article—"What's in a Name"—regarding a 1956 memo from Lauriston Taylor that discussed the names under consideration for our Society.
There are many interesting stories related to x rays and radioactivity, as well as the early pioneers in the related fields of pure and applied science. Equally interesting and important are the beginnings, past, and future of the HPS and its membership. Through the past and current efforts of the History Committee, we plan to capture and communicate to HPS members and the public that rich history. Keep an eye on this "History Corner."
After a slight hiatus due to COVID-19, Versant Physics continued its VersantCast podcast with Dr. Ramsay publishing the fourth episode in June. This episode covers the invention of the PET/CT with coinventor Dr. David Townsend and can be listened to here.
Darrell Fisher, PhD, and Misty Liverett, MS, CNMT, of Versant Physics recently wrote the white paper "Extravasation Events in the Nuclear Medicine Clinic," which supports the belief that nuclear medicine extravasation events should be reported. The paper can be read on the Versant blog.
Zach Tribbett, Program Committee Task Force Chair
The 2020 Health Physics Society (HPS) Virtual Workshop will begin on 10 September 2020. The Program Committee has worked with many groups to arrange an exciting lineup of sessions.
Virtual Workshop Schedule:
10 September – Diversity and Inclusion
15 September – Argonne National Lab: Response to 237Np Incident
17 September – Technical Session #1
22 September – Military Health Physics
24 September – Student Session
29 September – Accelerator
01 October – Rad NESHAPs
06 October – Technical Session #2
08 October – AIRRS Roundtable
13 October – Nonionizing Radiation
15 October – AAHP: Therapy Patient Release Issues
20 October – Medical Health Physics: Radiation Safety Culture
All sessions will begin at 2 pm EDT and run to approximately 5:20 pm EDT.
A full lineup of PEPs can be found on the registration form.
See the 2020 HPS Virtual Workshop website for current information as it becomes available.
The Program Committee chair is Chris Shaw. The Task Force chair for the Program Committee is Zach Tribbett. The PEP chair is Elaine Marshall.
Interested persons should submit résumés (with current contact information) and salary requirements to HPS Web Ops Editor in Chief Barbara Hamrick (firstname.lastname@example.org) by 7 September 2020.
Brant Ulsh, CHP, PhD, Health Physics Editor in Chief
The September issue of Health Physics traverses the chain from being exposed to radiation to the risk that exposure might pose to the effect it might cause.
Dr. Keyhandokht Karimi conducts an "Estimation of the Effective Dose of Radiation Workers: Optimization Based on the Weight Percentile" while Dr. Zhenyu Xiong and colleagues present an "Assessment of Eye Lens Dose Reduction When Using Lateral Lead Shields on the Patient's Head During Neuro Interventional Fluoroscopic Procedures and Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Scans."
Michiya Sasaki and colleagues consider risk in "Effect of Radiation Dose Rate on Circulatory Disease Mortality Among Nuclear Workers: Reanalysis of Hanford Data."
And finally, a trio of articles examines the effect of high doses: "Acute Radiation-Induced GI-ARS and H-ARS in a Canine Model of Mixed Neutron/Gamma Relative to Reference Co-60 Gamma Radiation: A Retrospective Study" by Thomas McVittie, "Effects of Amifostine Pre-Treatment on miRNA, lncRNA, and mRNA Profiles in the Hypothalamus of Mice Exposed to 60Co Gamma Radiation" by Dr. Changhui Ge and colleagues, and "Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Mitigates the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome in a Sex and Strain Dependent Manner in Mice" by Dr. David Kirsch and colleagues.
Follow the whole chain from exposure to risk to effect in the September issue of Health Physics.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is pleased to announce the publication of three new documents on radiation safety and security. Click the links to find more information on the IAEA website.
Radiation Safety of Accelerator Based Radioisotope Production Facilities, Specific Safety Guide, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-59
Radioisotopes are used worldwide in a range of medical, industrial, research. and academic applications. Many of these radioisotopes are produced in particle accelerators, and the number of institutions that operate linear accelerators or cyclotrons and manufacture and distribute radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., is significant and increasing. The production of radioisotopes using particle accelerators poses significant radiation hazards to workers, members of the public, and the environment when accelerators are operated without adequate radiation safety measures. This safety guide provides practical guidance for implementing radiation protection and safety measures in such facilities involved in the production and use of radioisotopes.
Radiation Safety in Well Logging, Specific Safety Guide, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-57
This safety guide provides recommendations on the use of radioactive sources and radiation generators in well logging, including in the manufacture, calibration, and maintenance of well-logging tools. It provides recommendations on radiation protection and safety for the storage, use, and transport of such radiation sources. The guidance in this publication is aimed primarily at operating organizations that are authorized to undertake well logging with radiation sources, as well as their employees and radiation protection officers. The guidance will also be of interest to regulatory bodies and to designers, manufacturers, suppliers, and maintenance and servicing organizations of well-logging equipment that contains radiation sources.
Security of Radioactive Material in Transport, IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 9-G (Rev. 1)
This updated version is intended to facilitate the establishment of an internationally consistent approach to security of radioactive material in transport. It builds on the relevant recommendations of various existing IAEA Nuclear Security Series publications and is applicable to the security of packages containing radioactive material that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences if used in a malicious act during international and domestic transport. It is also relevant to the security of some nuclear materials of Category III and below during transport, due to the radioactive nature of the material. Guidance on protection against unauthorized removal and sabotage is also covered.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is offering the webinar "Training and Education to Reduce Unintended Exposure" on 11 August 2020 at 9 am (EST). The objectives of this webinar are to learn (1) how training and education can prevent unnecessary exposure and accidents in radiotherapy by understanding potential accident situations and their consequences and (2) how to minimize patient risk by discussing dose constraints and strategies for planning and setup to avoid unintended exposure. More information and a link to register can be found on the IAEA website.
Emily Caffrey, Ask the Experts Editor
Amazon Prime recently released the new movie Radioactive, which details the life and achievements of perhaps the most famous female Noble Prize winner, Marie Curie. Does it accurately portray the life and achievements of Madam Curie? Does it accurately reflect her incredible research into radioactivity? Or does it devolve into fear mongering and blame? Watch the movie and then find out what Andy thought by reading his review here!
The August Products and Services offerings have been posted on the Products and Services page of the HPS website. Information on the following products and services is available:
Radiation Dosimetry Services—PL Medical Dosimetry Services
The August short course offerings have been posted on the Short Courses page of the HPS website. Information on the following courses is available:
Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) Training Course and Refresher Class—RSO Services, Inc.
Packaging and Shipping Class 7 (Radioactive) Material—Plexus Scientific Corporation
MARSSIM Online Training Course—ORAU's Professional Training Programs
MARSSIM for Managers Online Training Course—ORAU's Professional Training Programs
Planned for 10 September–21 October 2020
WebEx Virtual Meetings
Zach Tribbett, Bae Chu, Chris Shaw, Tim Taulbee
The Health Physics Society (HPS) membership has spoken and as a replacement for the canceled HPS 2020 Annual Meeting, we will be holding a series of virtual workshops as part of the 2020 HPS Virtual Workshop. We have had a tremendous amount of interest by attendees and presenters and have an exciting lineup of sessions and PEPs scheduled. Watch the HPS website and Health Physics News for a link to the Virtual Workshop website, which will be available soon.
Diversity and Inclusion Session
We would like to highlight the first session of the virtual workshop—Diversity and Inclusion—which will be held on 10 September. The Membership Committee and Women in Radiation Protection Section of the HPS are jointly hosting this session, which will be a combination of presentations and an open forum among the presenters, panelists, and audience. The presenters will set the stage describing how this session was brought to fruition, the current demographics of our Society, historical accomplishments of African-American men and women, and strategies on how to foster diversity and inclusion. Our three panelists bring different perspectives to the field and will have curated questions that will also be opened to the audience. The session aims to brainstorm diversity initiatives and opportunities to foster a supportive and engaging HPS that could strengthen the workforce. The face of health physics is changing, and it's important that we identify the differences that exist. In this unprecedented pandemic, this is HPS's time to foster unity as a community and organization. This first session will be free of charge—so please mark your calendars and join us for this important and informative session.
Other Session Topics
After the Diversity and Inclusion session, the program will also include session topics such as:
- Argonne National Laboratory Response to 237Np Incident
- Medical Health Physics
- Military Health Physics
- Nonionizing Radiation
- Rad NESHAPs
- Student Perspectives
Please check the meeting website when it becomes available for updates on the schedule and session topics, then mark your calendars and join us starting on Thursday, 10 September 2020, for a series of exciting and informative virtual workshops.
The Program Committee chair is Chris Shaw, the Task Force chair for the Program Committee is Zach Tribbett, and the PEP chair is Elaine Marshall.
Have you ever gone to a family or class reunion, run into someone you haven't seen in 20 years, and they ask you, "So [Ed], what have you been doing?" And you answer, "I've been working as a health physicist at XYZ." Then comes the questioning look and response … "A health what?"
In the historical documents of the Baltimore-Washington Chapter of the Health Physics Society (HPS), I found an interesting memo from Lauriston Taylor (National Bureau of Standards) to the Members Committee, which was reviewing proposals for the name of the HPS. Taylor was chairman of the committee. The date of the memo is 5 March 1956 and the subject is "Suggested Names." It appears to be a copy of the memo that was sent to Elda Anderson, as there is a handwritten "Dr. E.E. Anderson" at the very top of this copy. In the P.S. to Dr. Anderson at the bottom of the page, Taylor notes, "I have just discovered … I have failed to join the Society … accept the enclosed check as evidence of my intensions."
There were eight suggestions for names from K.Z. Morgan (Oak Ridge) and four others. Three names included some form of "Health Physics …" and the others were variations of Radiological, Radiation, Safety, or Protection. Jack Healy (Hanford) made the argument that "… the term Health Physics is a poor description of the work …" and recommends "Radiation Protection Society" as the name.
It is fascinating to read of the discussions and proposals for the formal name for our organization as it began in the mid-1950s. These early discussions continue off and on to this day … but what's in a name?!
The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has published NCRP Report No. 186, Approaches for Integrating Information From Radiation Biology and Epidemiology to Enhance Low-Dose Health Risk Assessment. View the publication overview.
NCRP Report No. 186 is a comprehensive compilation of data and studies on the types of epidemiological and biological information and techniques available to support biologically based modeling for radiation-induced cancers and circulatory disease.
More information can be found on the NCRP website.
Health Physics Society member Allen Brodsky passed away on 14 June 2020. His obituary can be found on the HPS website In Memoriam page.
Dan Sowers, CHP Corner Editor
The July 2020 issue of the CHP Corner is available to all on the American Academy of Health Physics website. In this issue, Wayne Gaul discusses concerns some folks may have in earning continuing education credits and upcoming recertification.
Congratulations to the following individuals who have received 2020 Health Physics Society (HPS) section awards:
Military Health Physics Section
Master Sergeant Danny McClung, USA (Ret.)—2020 John C. Taschner Leadership Award
The award is intended to acknowledge outstanding (1) contributions to the profession of health physics while in military service and (2) service to the general public that significantly contributes to the relationship between the military, the Veterans Administration, and the health physics profession.
Mr. William "Bill" Harris, USA Civilian—2020 Superior Civilian Service Award
The award is intended to acknowledge outstanding (1) contributions to the profession of health physics while serving as a senior civil servant supporting the Department of Defense and (2) service to the general public that significantly contributes to the relationship between the military and the health physics profession.
Lieutenant Jeffery Caudill, MSC, USN—2020 Young Military Health Physicist of the Year Award
The award is intended to acknowledge outstanding (1) contributions to the profession of health physics while currently serving with the military and (2) service to the general public that significantly contributes to the relationship between the military and the health physics profession.
Homeland Security and Emergency Response Section
Glen Reeves, MD—2020 Service Award
The award is intended to acknowledge outstanding (1) contributions to the profession of health physics while supporting the Society's homeland security and emergency response efforts and (2) service to the general public that significantly contributes to the relationship between the HPS and the health physics profession.
The Health Physics Society recognizes and congratulates the following individuals who have been loyal members for a half century:
Judith D. Foulke
Stanley E. Frost
Daniel A. Gollnick
James R. Goodgame
K.L. "Ken" Groves
Raymond A. Guilmette
Arnold F. Jacobson
Nancy P. Kirner
Henry W. Morton
James F. Stiver
Paul S. Webb
Robert J. Wilson
The Health Physics Society recognizes and congratulates the following individuals who have been loyal members for a quarter century:
Brian J. Bjorndal
Dennis N. Brown
Melanie M. Byers
Karen M. Colucci
Douglas F. Farver
Earl W. Fordham
Debbie B. Gilley
Kevin G. Hart
Richard P. Harvey, III
Darin R. Hekkala
Gregory S. Hisel
David G. Hoel
Janine F. Katanic
Neil C. Kiely
Janice M. Kuczynski
Michelle B. Lee
Alan G. Lurie
William J. McCabe
Ronald J. McConn, Jr.
Michael W. McNaughton
H. Justin Mohler
Harry F. Palmer
Michael G. W. Phillips
Steven E. Rademacher
Dennis M. Schaeffer
Kenneth J. Sejkora
Eric J. Simpson
Claudia C. Stenstrom
David A. Thompson
Lawrence D. Thorp
Joshua P. Walkowicz
Alan E. Watts
We remember the following Health Physics Society (HPS) members who have died since the 2019 HPS Annual Meeting:
Congratulations to the recipients of the 2020 Health Physics Society (HPS) awards. Information on HPS awards can be found on the Awards page, Fellowships page, and Scholarships page of the HPS website.
Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award
Distinguished Public Service Award
Elda E. Anderson Award
Health Physics Honor Roll
Student Science Award
Robert Gardner Memorial Fellowship
Robert S. Landauer, Sr., Memorial Fellowship
Burton J. Moyer Memorial Fellowship
Richard J. Burk, Jr., Fellowship
J. Newell Stannard Fellowship
F. Ward Whicker Scholarship
Dade Moeller Scholarship Award
Dade Moeller Scholarship Award Memorializing Kelly Austin
Congratulations to the officers and Board of Directors members who took office at the 2020 Health Physics Society (HPS) business meeting on 8 July. The full list of officers and Board members can be found on the Leadership page of the HPS website.
Treasurer Ali Simpkins
President-elect John Cardarelli
Secretary-elect Nicole Martinez
Director Kathryn Higley
Director Jama Van Horne-Sealy
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Emergency Preparedness and Response has published two new documents: Guidance for Medical Physicists Responding to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency and Pocket Guide for Medical Physicists Supporting Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Both are available in PDF format on the IAEA website.
The Health Physics Society (HPS) Tesla raffle fundraiser was a great success and the winner is HPS member Dennis Clum.
"My wife and I are really excited," Dennis said. "Thirty-five years ago, both Chuck and Genevieve Roessler were my graduate school professors and I remember them encouraging us to become student members of the Society, touting the many benefits of membership. I never dreamed that one benefit would be winning a new car!"
Health Physics Society member Ronald Stanley Hafner passed away on 6 May 2020. His obituary can be found on the HPS website In Memoriam page.
Eric Goldin, HPS President, 2019–2021
The Health Physics Society (HPS) has just issued the "Health Physics Society Statement on Diversity and Inclusion," which was developed by a task force in light of the recent social unrest. The task force was led by Cochairs Nicole Martinez and Kendall Berry and additional members Boyd (Henry) Rose, Chris Shaw, Lisa Manglass, Joy Epps, and Patricia Lee. As president of the Society, I greatly appreciate their thoughtfulness and insight in developing this statement. I also want to remind HPS members that we have a "Respectful Behavior Policy" that was published a few years ago and clearly states our expectations for participation in HPS events and activities. The task force identified some actions that will be tracked in our strategic planning process to ensure sustainability and success. Please don't hesitate to contact me or any Board member if you have questions or input.
The International Atomic Energy Agency-Environet (Network on Environmental Management and Remediation) invites young professionals (younger than 35 years) to develop an essay outlining innovative strategies and approaches to manage NORM residues and waste. The writer of the best essay will be granted a lump sum (to cover airfare and lodging over the entire duration of the Conference) and will be entitled to make a 20-minute presentation during the closing session of the International Conference on the Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Industry (NORM2020 Conference) to be held in Vienna, Austria, 19–23 October.
The NORM2020 Conference amplifies the objectives of the IAEA-Environet NORM Project, which has established three tasks groups (1) providing guidance on the establishment of policies and strategies for NORM, (2) defining strategies to establish NORM inventories in member states, and (3) establishing cost estimation of different NORM residue and waste management approaches.
The NORM2020 Conference wishes to establish a look into the future in which sustainability principles, aligned with the UN Sustainable Development Goals, are of paramount importance to back up development objectives. In this context, making efficient use of raw materials and natural resources is of strategic importance and these are linked with principles and practices that are aimed at eliminating waste and promoting the responsible and cyclical use of resources.
The essay should be two pages long, indicating the industry where the residue/waste comes from, the feasibility of the intended approach, and the fields of application. Economic considerations, safety/regulatory implications, and stakeholder acceptability may be also considered. The essay must be original, written in English, and limited to 800 words.
Essays should be sent by email to NORM2020 Conference by 14 August. The submitted essays will be reviewed by the chair and work group leaders of the Environet NORM Project.
The Health Physics Society 53rd Midyear Meeting, which was held in Bethesda, Maryland, in January 2020, included a plenary session each morning. The speakers are shown here. All photos are courtesy of Casper Sun.
HPS President Eric Goldin
NRC Commissioner David Wright
Jonathan Edwards, EPA – "The Intersection of Radiation Science and Communication"
Maria Korsnick, NEI – "Nuclear Industry Overview and Outlook"
Donald Miller, PAC 4 Committee, FDA – "Overview of NCRP Activities (Emphasis on Radiation Protection in Medicine)"
Rod Baltzer, Deep Isolation – "Innovations in Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste"
Muhammad Maqbool, UAB Health Physics Program
Kayla Stinson, a University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Health Professions MS in health physics student, was awarded the Health Physics Society (HPS) Outstanding Student Research Award for her research presentation at the HPS 64th Annual Meeting in July 2019. Her oral presentation for the award competition, based on her poster "Characterization of MCP-124 and MCP-150 Alloys for Beam Collimation and Radiation Shielding," was one of only two awarded out of more than 250 oral and 70 poster presentations.
"This is a huge honor for a young program to win an award competing against so many researchers from around the world," said Stinson's mentor, Associate Professor Muhammad Maqbool, PhD, Health Physics Program, UAB Department of Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences.
Stinson's research investigates different materials' shielding properties—testing how well they protect against radiation. Her work looked at many different factors, including scattered radiation and buildup as well as mathematical developments based on the Klein-Nishina formula. The work was designed to consider scattering cross sections and radiation dose accuracy for radiation workers and patients.
The MCP-124 is a eutectic of the bismuth-lead system with a low melting point designed for biomedical applications as it can easily be bent, with a melting point of 124 degrees Celsius. Stinson has also published her work with wax, a commonly used material in this area.
Maqbool says research in this area continues at UAB. He is expanding the research with three students—two in health physics and one in nuclear medicine technology. Their goal is to present updated results for publication in early 2020.
Stinson, who earned a cash award and a plaque for her research award, graduated in December 2019.
HPS Local Arrangements Committee
The Baltimore Washington Chapter of the Health Physics Society (BWCHPS) was pleased to support local arrangements for the 2020 HPS Midyear Meeting, which was held in Bethesda, Maryland, the week of 19 January 2020. While there were many highlights of the meeting, we must say that there was great interest in the two tours that were arranged as well as the cool dry-fit HPS 2020 polo shirts that were offered for sale by the chapter and that will continue on sale through the annual meeting in National Harbor.
Tour of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute
HPS midyear participants at AFRRI. Photo courtesy of Dr. William F. Blakely
The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) supported a request from the BWCHPS and hosted a visit to AFRRI on Monday, 27 January. Maj. Joshua Molgaard and Dr. William F. Blakely, both of AFFRI, organized the visit, which involved about a dozen attendees of the 2020 HPS Midyear Meeting. AFRRI tour participants saw AFRRI's 60Co Facility, Reactor Facility, and Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory. Several AFRRI staff assisted as tour guides, including Dr. V. Kumar, Dr. David Schauer Maj. J. Molgaard, Charles (Bob) Woodruff and SFC S. Moore. Additional AFRRI staff, who supported the AFRRI tour, includes Maj. C. Barrera, Dr. David Bolduc, C. Lingerfelt, and SFC B. Knibbe.
Tour of the US NRC Headquarters Operations Center
HPS midyear participants at the NRC Headquarters Operations Center. Photo courtesy of Jeff Kowalczik
On Tuesday, 28 January, about 25 HPS midyear meeting participants toured the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Headquarters Operations Center. The center serves as the coordination point for communications with NRC licensees, state entities, and other federal agencies during incidents and emergency events at NRC-licensed facilities. The tour was hosted by HPS member Jeff Kowalczik.
HPS 2020 Dry-Fit Polo Sales
HPS polo shirts were sold at the midyear meeting. Photo courtesy of Jeff Chapman
Throughout the week of the midyear meeting, HPS polo shirts were offered for sale. These shirts feature in red, white, and blue a 4th of July celebration over our Nation's Capital, Washington, DC. We will continue to offer these shirts. Soon you will be able to preorder them online prior to the HPS annual meeting in National Harbor, Maryland.
Midyear Night Out at Pinstripes-Bistro-Bowling-Bocce
Bowling at Pinstripes. Photo courtesy of Jeff Chapman
BWCHPS members were joined by two HPS members attending the midyear meeting for a fun evening of bowling, food, and beverage at the upscale Pinstripes bistro. We are pleased to report results: n=7 and mean and 1sd of 112 ± 11. Ed Tupin was the clear winner, having amped up his game prior to attendance. When someone walks onto the alley wearing their own personal bowling shoes, beware.
Add the dates of the following Health Physics Society meetings to your calendar. Check the Meetings and Conferences page of the website for the most current information.
65th Annual Meeting: The July 2020 meeting has been cancelled. Information will be updated as the Board continues to look at options for this meeting.
66th Annual Meeting: 25–29 July 2021; Phoenix, Arizona
67th Annual Meeting: 16–21 July 2022; Spokane, Washington