Answer to Question #8971 Submitted to "Ask the Experts"
Category: Consumer Electronic Products
The following question was answered by an expert in the appropriate field:
I have a question about RFID (radiofrequency identification) security tags that are in clothing to prevent store theft. My toddler has several pairs of jeans that he has worn and I washed for many months before I noticed the tags. One is falling apart. I am concerned. Is there any chance he would have been exposed to any radiation from them?
You have absolutely nothing to worry about. These consumer security tags often contain a small radiofrequency (RF) transmitter or a passive system that is activated by a nearby source. They are not hazardous in any way to the consumer.
In general, many electronic products emit RF radiation that is similar and part of the radio spectrum portion of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. This is considered nonionizing radiation and the biological effects are considered negligible and safe. There is actually more concern with the nearby RF source that may interfere with implanted medical devices. What you describe sounds like a passive RFID.
There are generally three types of RFID tags: active RFID tags, which contain a battery and can transmit signals autonomously; passive RFID tags, which have no battery and require an external source to provoke signal transmission; and battery assisted passive (BAP) RFID tags, which require an external source to wake up but have a significant higher forward link capability, providing great read range. Check out the RFID Journal website.
These emissions are not ionizing radiation such as x rays or gamma rays, which are associated with radioactive material. These nonionizing radiowaves include WiFi, broadband, cell phones, radar, television, and radio. Many of these are regulated by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). These are also closely monitored by other government agencies that may generate safety standards, if necessary. Studies have shown that environmental levels of RF energy routinely encountered by the general public are typically far below levels necessary to produce significant heating and increased body temperature.
I am attaching URLs from several organizations, some of which provide additional links (which might be more information than you care for). In other words, do not worry.
The U.S. Federal Communications Commission publishes standards.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also has the authority to establish such standards when it considers it a safety issue; the FDA site covers a broad range of such electromagnetic products.
The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health website provides some excellent information.
The American Cancer Society also considers such radiation safe.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has an excellent and informative site.
And finally, I will refer you to our own Health Physics Society Ask the Experts site.
I hope this is useful information.
Orhan H. Suleiman, MS, PhD