American National Standard N13.35
Specifications for the Bottle Manikin Absorption Phantom
The calibration of in vivo counting equipment is commonly performed
using anthropometric phantoms containing a known distribution and known
activity of radioactive material. Physical characteristics of the
phantoms, such as height, mass, density, volume, shape, and effective
atomic number are designed to adequately represent a reference
structure. The bottle manikin absorption phantom (BOMAB) is comprised
of 10 plastic containers and is used to calibrate in vivo counting
systems that are designed to measure the radionuclides that emit high
energy photons (200 keV < E < 3 MeV).
Because many different types of phantoms are used to calibrate in vivo
counting systems, the importance of establishing standard
specifications for phantoms was emphasized at the 1990 meeting of in
vivo counting professionals held at the National Institute of Standards
and Technology (NIST) (Kramer et al. 1991). The consensus of the NIST
meeting attendees was that standard specifications were needed for the
bottle manikin absorption (BOMAB) phantom. The standard specifications
for the BOMAB phantom provide the basis for a consistent phantom design
for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. Such systems are designed
to measure radionuclides that emit high-energy photons and that are
assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the body.
This standard provides the specifications for the design, fabrication,
and quality (accuracy and precision) of the BOMAB phantom. It addresses
material composition, physical specifications, quality assurance and
quality control, and incorporation of the radioactive material in the
phantom. The standard does not specify particular fabrication
techniques or component testing techniques, but instead addresses
specifications for the finished phantom. Annex A contains information
about typical materials used in the construction of BOMAB phantoms.
Annex B contains information on the applications for BOMAB phantoms.
Annex C contains a brief summary of historical BOMAB phantom designs
and a photograph of a BOMAB phantom.
The purpose of this standard is to establish the specifications for the
design and fabrication of BOMAB phantoms used to calibrate monitoring
systems for in vivo measurement of high energy photons emitted from the
radionuclides that are homogeneously distributed in the body. The
specifications provide the basis for a consistent design of the BOMAB
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