American National Standard N13.35
Specifications for the Bottle Manikin Absorption Phantom
The calibration of in vivo counting equipment is commonly performed using anthropometric phantoms containing a known distribution and known activity of radioactive material. Physical characteristics of the phantoms, such as height, mass, density, volume, shape, and effective atomic number are designed to adequately represent a reference structure. The bottle manikin absorption phantom (BOMAB) is comprised of 10 plastic containers and is used to calibrate in vivo counting systems that are designed to measure the radionuclides that emit high energy photons (200 keV < E < 3 MeV).
Because many different types of phantoms are used to calibrate in vivo counting systems, the importance of establishing standard specifications for phantoms was emphasized at the 1990 meeting of in vivo counting professionals held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (Kramer et al. 1991). The consensus of the NIST meeting attendees was that standard specifications were needed for the bottle manikin absorption (BOMAB) phantom. The standard specifications for the BOMAB phantom provide the basis for a consistent phantom design for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. Such systems are designed to measure radionuclides that emit high-energy photons and that are assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the body.
This standard provides the specifications for the design, fabrication, and quality (accuracy and precision) of the BOMAB phantom. It addresses material composition, physical specifications, quality assurance and quality control, and incorporation of the radioactive material in the phantom. The standard does not specify particular fabrication techniques or component testing techniques, but instead addresses specifications for the finished phantom. Annex A contains information about typical materials used in the construction of BOMAB phantoms. Annex B contains information on the applications for BOMAB phantoms. Annex C contains a brief summary of historical BOMAB phantom designs and a photograph of a BOMAB phantom.
The purpose of this standard is to establish the specifications for the design and fabrication of BOMAB phantoms used to calibrate monitoring systems for in vivo measurement of high energy photons emitted from the radionuclides that are homogeneously distributed in the body. The specifications provide the basis for a consistent design of the BOMAB phantom.